Structure Classics: Normal San Martín Municipal Theater / Mario Roberto Álvarez, Macedonio Oscar Ruiz
On Avenida Corrientes, the Teatro Municipal Normal San Martín (TGSM) rises between social gathering partitions within the coronary heart of downtown Buenos Aires. Designed by Mario Roberto Álvarez and Macedonio Oscar Ruiz in 1954, this constructing comes to deal with an inventive and cultural challenge widespread to the massive cities of America. It stands as one in every of Argentina’s most essential theaters, offering areas for theatrical and cinematic performances in addition to artwork exhibitions. Spanning 30,000 sq. meters, it constitutes a theater complicated alongside the Normal San Martín Cultural Middle, working independently.
Inaugurated on Could 25, 1960, in the course of the presidency of Arturo Frondizi, the architects’ predominant problem was to cope with the constraints imposed by the terrain. They selected to create a composition of juxtaposed volumes that separated the features into impartial constructing blocks. This manner, the venture might be developed in several levels, and the volumetrics can be fashioned into three our bodies, comprising 13 flooring and 4 basement ranges. These would home three theaters, a photograph gallery, a cinema, the Central Corridor Alfredo Alcón, workshops, exhibition rooms, storage areas, and workplaces for varied duties associated to creative manufacturing. Service areas have been positioned alongside the social gathering partitions and in direction of the again, liberating the middle to place the corridor with the stage and set up help areas behind it. In the meantime, workplaces have been positioned within the ten-story quantity to reconfigure the entrance alongside Av. Corrientes.
In my view, structure is primarily about utility and performance. Magnificence is a attainable consequence, however it’s not an goal. Structure must be logical, useful, and simple. The aesthetic consequence is a attainable however not necessary consequence. – Mario Roberto Álvarez
Alongside officers, administrators, artists, and theater technicians, architects formulated a program designed to fulfill probably the most demanding wants, contributing to the creation of a complete work. This system was organized round a comedy theater with a capability for 1130 spectators unfold throughout two ranges, adaptable for different performances. Within the first block on Corrientes Avenue, there are administrative workplaces, the Secretary of Tradition, and a micro-cinema positioned on the tenth flooring, designed for each non-public and public use, and can be used as a convention corridor. Subsequent, there’s the presence of one other quantity containing two efficiency halls with a tall block housing the stage, dressing rooms, and upkeep areas. Alongside Sarmiento Avenue, the part of the Faculty of Dramatic Arts is introduced, distributed over eight flooring, and composed of school rooms for the instructing of stage theater, choreography, cinematic arts, and so forth., together with an underground car parking zone.
Resulting from its dimensions, services, gear, and stage equipment, the stage is likely one of the most complete in its style, able to adapting to choreographic and musical performances, amongst others. It options 9 lifting platforms with 34 seats every, 2 rotating levels, an orchestra elevator, a 3 x 6.50 m freight elevator, 6 platforms for set maneuvers, 2 grids with 14 lifting machines, 3 lighting bridges, a sales space for projected surroundings and one for movie productions, 6 footlights, towers, rakes, projectors, and impact machines, 30 electromagnetic management stations for lighting, and 10 scene management stations, a sound management sales space, 9 impact microphones, 11 audio system, 3 curtains, a panoramic display, and so forth.
I imagine that every architect ought to have ideas, attempt to adhere to them, not betray themselves, but in addition not imagine that what one does is the one factor that must be executed. – Mario Roberto Álvarez
The theater has the next halls:
- Martín Coronado Corridor: Its title pays homage to one of many pioneers of Argentine playwriting. With a capability of 1049 spectators, it options two stepped stalls and an Italian-style stage with a gap starting from 11 to 16 meters, outfitted with a central part able to transferring vertically, completely or partially, by means of 9 elevators working concurrently or individually. Moreover, it features a lifting orchestra pit and fashionable lighting and sound methods. In its lobby, you possibly can admire José Fioravanti’s art work ‘Allegory to the Theater,’ and on the facet partitions, the sculptures ‘The Drama’ and ‘The Comedy’ by Pablo Curatella Manes.
- Casacuberta Corridor: Named in honor of the Nineteenth-century dramatic performer Juan José de los Santos Casacuberta, the corridor has a capability for 566 folks, organized on a semicircular stall that’s divided into three radial sections. The presence of a lifting stage offers the chance to operate as a stage, a stall flooring, and even an orchestra pit, whereas the stage itself has dimensions of 35 meters in width by 6 meters in depth. In its lobby, you possibly can admire Luis Seoane’s mural ‘The Start of Argentine Theater,’ the terracotta allegorical aid by Carlos de la Cárcova, and Enio Iommi’s metal sculpture ‘Steady Varieties.’
- Cunill Cabanellas Corridor: In tribute to the Catalan director and pedagogue Antonio Cunill Cabanellas, this corridor is devoted to experimental productions with a capability of roughly 200 spectators. It’s designed to adapt the stage-audience relationship in accordance with the wants of unconventional performances. In its lobby, you could find Luis Diego Pedreira’s mural ‘The Podestà Brothers.’
- Leopoldo Lugones Corridor: Meant for movie screenings, this corridor has a seating capability of 233 spectators and is positioned on the tenth flooring of the theater.
Above the principle facade, there are three double-height superimposed lobbies, which join the halls and in addition the bottom flooring foyer with public entry, seen as an extension of the sidewalk that continues towards the exhibition corridor. The doorway from Corrientes Avenue leads on to the central foyer named ‘Alfredo Alcón,’ clad in stone and spanning nearly the whole width of the property. Above it, the amount housing the Martín Coronado Corridor outstands, with its flooring serving because the ceiling for the foyer, and outstanding slanted columns spotlight its significance. The house encompasses a ceramic mural by Juan Batlle Planas, and a mezzanine surrounds the foyer, offering house for exhibitions.
The photograph gallery, established in 1985, permits direct communication with the Sculpture Courtyard of the San Martín Cultural Middle and serves as a reference house for the sector of images and visible arts. The areas designed for works by artists equivalent to Enio Iommi, Libero Badii, and so forth., facilitate the connection between artwork and structure.
The primary facade is constructed utilizing a curtain wall of metal and glass, permitting for structural unfolding because the flooring overlap within the foyer. The marquee is supported by tensioners from the facade on Corrientes Avenue, defending folks passing by and creating an area for movie shoots, designed with granite tiles on its higher half.
In the direction of the yr 2000, the San Martín Theater remodeled into the headquarters of the Normal and Creative Path of the Complejo Teatral de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Theater Complicated).
– Moderna Buenos Aires, Centro Cultural San Martín 1962-1970
– Moderna Buenos Aires, Teatro Municipal Normal San Martín 1954-1960
– Informes de la Construcción Vol. 10, nº 94, octubre de 1957
– Complejo Teatral de Buenos Aires, 2000-2021